Short model description

The Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment – High Resolution Limited Area Model) is a fully online-coupled ACT-NWP (Atmospheric Chemistry Transport – Numerical Weather Prediction) modeling system for regional-, meso- and urban scale applications. The NWP part has been developed by HIRLAM consortium and used for operational weather forecast. The ACT (Enviro-) components were mainly developed by Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) and Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (NBI/UC) with partners from Eastern Europe countries (Baklanov, et al., 2008; Korsholm, et al., 2008). It consist of gas-phase chemistry CBMZ (Zaveri and Peters, 1999) and aerosol microphysics module M7 (Vignati et al., 2004), which includes sulfate, mineral dust, sea-salt, black and organic carbon (Nuterman et al. 2013) as well as biological material as pollen (Mahura et al., 2009). There are modules of natural and anthropogenic emissions, nucleation, coagulation, condensation, dry and wet deposition, and sedimentation of aerosols.
The Savijarvi radiation scheme (Savijaervi, 1990) has been improved to account explicitly for aerosol radiation interactions for 10 aerosol subtypes (soluble/insoluble nucleation, accumulation and coarse modes of sulfate, soot, sea-salt and mineral dust particles). The short-wave radiative transfer calculations are performed as standard 2-stream calculations for averages of aerosol optical properties weighted over the entire spectrum (Morozova et al., 2012).
The aerosol activation scheme (Abdul-Razzak and Ghan, 2000) was also implemented in STRACO condensation-convection scheme (Unden et al, 2002). The nucleation is dependent on aerosol properties and the ice-phase processes are reformulated in terms of classical nucleation theory. Moreover, the precipitation release is more dependent on cloud droplet effective radius.
It is expected that the model will be run at least twice in the AQMEII exercise: with switched off and on the feedbacks (maybe also including the direct and indirect feedbacks separately).

Model setup

Period: run one-year simulation (2010) with and without feedbacks
Modeling domain: 69W- 78E, 26N-79N
Projection: rotated pole with center in (lon: 10o, lat: -42o)
Horizontal grid resolution: 0.15o x 0.15o
Vertical Resolution:
40 hybrid sigma levels (up to 10 hPa)
Meteorological BC: ECMWF IFS
Anthropogenic emissions: TNO-MACC for 2009
Biomass burning emissions: IS4FIRES by FMI
Natural emissions: interactive sea-salt, mineral dust
Chemical mechanism: CBMZ
 - off
Aerosols: M7 aerosol microphysics with simple tropospheric sulfur chemistry

Emission inventories


  • TNO-MACC for 2009
  • Species to be used: SO2, PM
  • Temporal profile: hour-of-day, day-of-week and day-of-year (depends on country time zone/shift)
  • Vertical profile: according to TNO
  • PM emissions scaling following TNO recommendation on wiki

Biomass burning

  • Species to be used: SO2 and TPM split into PM2.5 and PM10 following recommendations on wiki
  • Vertical profile is as follows (approximates recommendation of emitting 50% in lowest 200 m and 50% between 200 and 1000 m):
layer 0 - 90 m 90 - 170 m 170 - 310 m 310 - 470 m 470 - 710 m 710 - 990 m
fraction 0.213 0.121 0.159 0.145 0.181 0.181


  • Interactive sea-salt emission module by Zakey et al., 2008;
  • Interactive mineral dust emission module by Zakey et al., 2006,

Boundary and initial conditions

Meteorological IC/BC

Meteorological IC and BC fields are taken from operational ECMWF IFS analyses at 3 hr temporal resolution (analyses + short forecasts) and 0.25o x 0.25o horizontal resolution for domain 16N - 90N and 180W - 180E and 91 vertical levels. The grid size is thus 370 x 350 x 91.
The following parameters need to be retrieved from the ECMWF-MARS archive to force Enviro-HIRLAM:

  • 2D surface fields: soil moisture content, snow depth, surface roughness, geopotential, land cover, logarithm of surface pressure, albedo, land-use classes, vegetation types, soil types;
  • 3D fields: specific humidity, temperature, wind components.

Chemical IC/BC

Chemical IC/BC data are taken from IFS-MOZART output. The two mineral dust size bins - 0.03 –0.55 um (var4) and 0.55 –0.9 um (var5) - of IFS-MOZART are treated according to wiki, i.e., they summed up and assigned to accumulation (10%) and course (90%) insoluble modes. Sea salt fields are not used as advised by wiki.
The aerosol number concentrations are computed from the aerosol masses according to the Hatch-Choate conversion equations.
The variables of IFS-MOZART are assigned to Enviro-HIRLAM (simple tropospheric chemistry, M7 aerosol microphysics) as follows:

  • O3, NO, NO2, HNO3, H2O2, SO2, OH directly
  • SO4 -> accumulation soluble mode of SO4 (0.05 um mode diameter, sigma = 1.59)
  • DU01 (0.03-0.55 um) + DU02 (0.55-0.90 um) -> 10% DUTOT (0.05 um mode diameter, sigma = 1.59) -> 90% DUTOT (0.5 um mode diameter, sigma = 2.0)
  • BC -> 50% accumulation insoluble mode and 50% accumulation soluble mode (0.05 um mode diameter, sd = 1.59)
  • OC -> 50% accumulation insoluble mode and 50% accumulation soluble mode (0.05 um mode diameter, sd = 1.59)


Abdul-Razzak, H., and S. J. Ghan (2000), A parameterization of aerosol activation: 2. Multiple aerosol types, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D5), 6837–6844, doi:10.1029/1999JD901161.

Baklanov A., U. Korsholm, A. Mahura, C. Petersen, A. Gross, 2008: ENVIRO-HIRLAM: on-line coupled modelling of urban meteorology and air pollution. Advances in Science and Research, 2, 41-46.

Feichter, J., E. Kjellström, H. Rodhe, F. Dentener, J. Lelieveld, and G. J. Roelofs, 1996: Simulation of the tropospheric sulfur cycle in a global climate model, Atmospheric Environment, 30, 1693-1707.

Korsholm U.S., A. Baklanov, A. Gross, A. Mahura, B.H. Sass, E. Kaas, 2008: Online coupled chemical weather forecasting based on HIRLAM – overview and prospective of Enviro-HIRLAM. HIRLAM Newsletter, 54.

Mahura A., Baklanov A., Korsholm, U., 2009: Parameterization of the birch pollen diurnal cycle, Aerobiologia, Vol. 25, Issue 4, p. 203-208.

Morozova (Khoreva), E.I., S.V. Mostamandi, L. Rontu, K.P. Nielsen, A.A. Baklanov (2012) Direct aerosol effects in the one-dimensional version of regional meteorological model Enviro-HIRLAM. Proceedings of the Russian State Hydrometeorological University. A theoretical research journal. 2012, Issue 26. – St.Petersburg: RSHU Publishers. ISSN 2074-2762, 12 pp.

Nuterman, R., Korsholm, U., Zakey, A., Nielsen, K. P., Sørensen, B., Mahura, A., Rasmussen, A., Mažeikis, A., Gonzalez-Aparicio, I., Morozova, E., Sass, B. H., Kaas, E., and Baklanov, A.: New developments in Enviro-HIRLAM online integrated modeling system. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 15, EGU2013-12520-1, 2013.

Savijärvi, Hannu, 1990: Fast Radiation Parameterization Schemes for Mesoscale and Short-Range Forecast Models. J. Appl. Meteor., 29, 437–447.

Undén, P., et al., 2002. Hirlam-5 scientific documentation. Tech. rep., SMHI.

Vignati, E., Wilson, J. and Stier, P. (2004). M7: An efficient size-resolved aerosol microphysics module for large-scale aerosol transport models. Journal of Geophysical Research 109(D22): doi: 10.1029/2003JD004485. issn: 0148-0227.

Zakey, A. S., F. Giorgi, and X. Bi, 2008: Modeling of sea salt in a regional climate model: Fluxes and radiative forcing, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D14221, doi:10.1029/2007JD009209.

Zakey, A. S., Solmon, F., and Giorgi, F., 2006: Implementation and testing of a desert dust module in a regional climate model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4687-4704, doi:10.5194/acp-6-4687-2006.

Zaveri R.A. and L.K. Peters, 1999: A new lumped structure photochemical mechanism for large-scale applications. J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 104, D23, 30,387-30, 415.

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